Plants are living beings as well, and similar to our requirements, they need certain factors to survive too. As such, some plants are highly adaptable; their structure is such that they adjust themselves to the surrounding area. The cactus, for instance, has a natural ability to adapt itself to the harsh desert climate. In general though, you should be aware of the basic necessities that plants require, especially if you are interested in gardening and plan to tend to your garden on a daily basis. The paragraphs below enlist the basic survival factors in detail.
Factors Essential for Plant Survival
- It is one of the most essential factors needed for the plant growth.
- Most plants need optimum quantity of water to grow.
- Each and every plant has its own water requirement.
- Some plants grow well in dry atmospheric conditions, while some need a consistent supply of moisture.
- You need to be aware of which plant needs how much, because if you tend to provide less or more water, the plant is sure to wither or die.
- Soil with an appropriate humidity and a correct balance of nutrients and minerals is one of the important factors for the growth and survival of a plant.
- The type of soil and its composition required varies according to plant species.
- If the right kind of soil is used, you would be surprised to know that the plant does not even need fertilizers, which are otherwise used in a major quantity.
- Soil provides oxygen; basically, it contains oxygen, which is absorbed by plant cells, and thus, helps them survive.
- It provides a tremendous stability as well, holding the roots strongly into its folds.
- Sunlight is a natural and main source of energy for plants.
- The process of photosynthesis takes place primarily due to the sunlight.
- Plants absorb light energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy.
- They absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it to simple sugars, basically.
- This energy is stored and used by the plant.
- Light can be provided using natural or artificial sources.
- Plants need optimal temperature for proper survival. The right kind of soil helps provide the right temperature as well.
- Temperature of the surrounding atmosphere greatly influences the plant growth.
- A range of optimum temperature widely varies from species to species. The most favorable atmospheric temperature for most of the plant species is between 65 to 85 °F, i.e., a daytime temperature of 70 to 80 °F, and a nighttime temperature of 60 to 68 °F.
- Optimum temperature is necessary for several plant processes such as germination, respiration, photosynthesis, and flowering.
- Ideally, many plants do adjust to fluctuating temperatures, however, it is best that the temperature remains between the required range.
- Very high or low values in the night or day will cause plant stress, resulting in poor growth and damage.
- Preferably, the temperature at night needs to be at least 10 degrees lower than that of the day.
- Atmosphere, or in layman's terms, air, is very important for proper growth.
- The atmosphere contains relative humidity and carbon dioxide
- Relative humidity ranging from 40-60% is advantageous for most of the plants.
- Plants require carbon dioxide for manufacturing the sugar through the process of photosynthesis.
- Oxygen is required for plant respiration and utilization of photosynthesis byproducts.
- Some plants require excess humidity than the others. In home gardens, this problem can be solved by attaching humidifiers to the ventilator system.
- Foliage plants can be grouped together as well, this promotes humidity, however, avoid doing so, as it may cause spread of diseases.
- Just like how animals and human beings require food to eat, plants do so as well.
- Mineral nutrients can be called 'plant food'. They come from the soil, get dissolved in the water, and are absorbed through the plant roots.
- The nutrients plants need to survive are classified into two groups - macronutrients and micronutrients.
- Nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus are known as primary nutrients, while sulfur, calcium, and magnesium are referred to as secondary nutrients.
- Copper, boron, cobalt, chloride, silicon, zinc, iron, molybdenum, and manganese are called micronutrients.
- Minerals are provided via water, soil, and air.
- These minerals are highly essential, and they provide all the essential nutrients that the plant requires for proper growth.
- Again, the quantity of mineral for every plant may be different. Another point to remember is that, these nutrients may be supplied artificially as well.
- However, there is no substitute for natural sources; therefore, it is best that these nutrients be supplied from soil and air and water.