Deciduous Forest Plants

Deciduous Forest Plants

The Earth is covered with many types of vegetation, from evergreen forests to desert vegetation. However, it is the deciduous forest plants that mesmerize us with their ever-changing hues and growth pattern. Let us learn more about these enchanting forest plants.
Gardenerdy Staff
Last Updated: Feb 16, 2018
The name deciduous is taken from the Latin word decidere, which means to fall off. This term is used for describing trees that shed their leaves during a specific season. The leaves change their color and fall in autumn, and regrow when spring arrives. These plants become dormant in winter and bloom again in spring. 

Following are some of the shrubs and trees found in deciduous forests across the globe. These plants can be used for ornamental purposes in gardens and for professional landscaping.
List of Deciduous Shrubs
Hydrangea
Hydrangea
Hydrangea or hortensia, is native to Asia and America. This flowering shrub is hardy in USDA zones ranging between 4-7. The seeds of this shrub must be planted during spring. The flowers bloom throughout summer and fall, and can be found in a variety of colors such as pink, blue, lavender, and white. These flowers grow in clusters or flower heads that resemble pom-pons. These flower heads, consist of smaller fertile flowers that makeup the center, while the larger sterile flowers form the outer arc.

The color of the flowers is affected by the pH level in the soil. Soil with lower than 6.0 pH will produce bluish flowers, while pH greater than 6.0 will produce pink flowers. This plant requires plenty of sunlight and moist soil to thrive, however it must be placed in a partially shaded part of the garden so as to avoid excess exposure to sunlight.
Azalea
Azalea
Azalea is a flowering shrub that belongs to the genus of Rhododendrons. This plant has a vibrant range of flowers and is available in thousands of varieties. Even though this plant is sturdy enough to survive in lower temperatures, it thrives in moderate growing conditions. Azalea shrubs are hardy in USDA zones between 4-9. This plant thrives in acidic soil that have a pH level of 4.5-6.0.

The Azalea plant must be placed in a relatively shaded area and must be provided plenty of moisture. The plant has both ground covering as well as tall varieties, which can attain heights of 25 feet. The plant must be pruned as soon as the blooms wither and before it is time for the next budding season. Azalea flowers are bell-shaped or tubular and can display various colors such as, white, yellow, red, pink, and purple.
Butterfly Bush
Butterfly Bush
Buddleja or the Butterfly bush is abundant with clusters of tubular flowers. The shrub grows up to 10 feet in height and gives an impressive spread. As the name suggests, this shrub attracts butterflies in hordes and is thus a must-have for any garden.

This shrub grows well in hardiness zones ranging from 5-10. It requires full sun and is adaptable to various types of soil, as long as it is well-drained. The flowers bloom during summer and fall. It has a capsular fruit which is inedible for humans. The Butterfly bush is also susceptible to fungal infections and pest.
Bailey Compact
Bailey Compact
Also known as the Viburnum trilobum 'Bailey Compact' or the American cranberry bush, this plant is native to America. This shrub can attain a height and width of 6 feet. This shrub is hardy in zones from 2-7 and requires minimal pruning and maintenance. The green foliage of this shrub turns crimson-orange during fall. It also produces white showy flowers in late spring.

This shrub requires partial shade, medium moisture, and well-drained soil. The shrub is known for its bright red fruits and pretty white flowers, which is why it is preferred as a screen shrub because it accentuates the beauty of the garden. Strangely, birds and other animals do not prefer the fruit of this shrub.
Common Lilac
Common Lilac
Also known as 'Syringa vulgaris', the Common Lilac belongs to the genus of Syringa. The Lilacs bloom in spring, however, the flowers do not last more than a few weeks. Lilacs grow well in hardiness zones between 3-2. This shrub has dwarf as well as very tall varieties, which are considered as small trees. The dwarf shrubs stop growing after reaching 4 feet, while the larger varieties can grow up to 30 feet.

This shrub grows better in well-drained soil and cannot tolerate excess moisture. Since this plant is native to rocky areas, it does well in elevated terrain. Even though it prefers alkaline soil, this shrub grows well in neutral soil as well.
Common Chokecherry
Common Chokecherry
Prunus virginiana or the Common Chokecherry is a large shrub. It grows well in cold hardiness zones of 2. This shrub can survive with less water as it is moderately drought resistant. It produces delicious fruits which can be used for making jams, sauces, and jellies. The foliage and branches provide food for wildlife as well.

Its leaves turn purple with the coming of summer, which makes this shrub an attractive addition to the garden. This shrub thrives in soil which has a pH between 5.0-8.0 and is adapted to various types of soil, thereby making it comparatively easy to grow and replant.
Double Flowering Plum
Double Flowering Plum
The Prunus triloba"Multiplex" or the Rose Tree of China, is a double flowering shrub which is famous for its spectacular pink flowers. This shrub can grow up to 8 feet in height and can spread to about 6-8 feet. It can grow in hardiness zones of 2 and requires plenty of sunlight and well-drained soil.

The shrub has ornamental features and yields flowers which resemble rosebuds. Once the flowers bloom, they cover the entire line of the branch, thereby making the shrub look completely pink, with a few specks of green scattered all over the plant. Once the flowers wither, the foliage turns to crimson gold with bronzed branches.
Pussywillow
Pussywillow
The Pussy willow belongs to the genus of Salix, and is native to North America and Canada. This shrub is considered as the harbinger of spring, as its catkins appear earlier than any other plant. It is also a fast growing tree. This plant grows in hardiness zone between 4-8 and blooms between March and April. This is a medium-sized shrub which grows up to 6-25 feet in height. Both the male and female shrubs produce silky catkins.

This shrub is native to wetlands and thus requires plenty of water to thrive. These shrubs are suitable for terrain that are wet and poorly drained. The male plant matures faster than the female, and produces yellowish catkins as compared to the grayish-white ones produced by the female plant.
Tamarix
Tamarix Ramosissima Pink Flowers
Tamarix or salt cedar is a deciduous flowering plant, which is native to the arid areas of Africa and Israel. This shrub can grow up to 16 feet and has flowers which are whitish-pink. The flowers bloom for a long time and can be seen from January to mid-September. This shrub is hardy in zones between 3-9.

The Tamarix requires full sun or partial shade and plenty of water. Nonetheless, it tolerate dry sites, alkaline soil, saline soil, and windy terrain with exceptional ease. This shrub is considered invasive because it spreads rapidly, invades wetlands, and makes the soil more saline. It also deprives other vegetation of water, thereby making it hard for anything else to grow.
Alpine Currant
Alpine Currant
Also known as Ribes alpinum, the alpine currant is a small shrub. This shrub is often used as a hedging plant because of its hardiness. This plant can grow up to 5 feet and has glossy leaves that make it an ideal choice for making hedges for the garden and driveway.

The hardiness zones for this plant is between 3-7. This plant thrives in soil which is less alkaline, well-drained, and moist. The Alpine currant requires partial sunlight to grow comfortably. It yields red fruits during midsummer which are edible but lack flavor and are unpalatable. The foliage of this shrub is dense and remains throughout summer. It is also resistant to many diseases.
Japanese Barberry
Japanese Barberry
The Japanese Barberry or the 'Berberis thunbergii', is native to eastern Asia and Japan. This shrub can grow up to a height of 8 feet. It has spine-bearing branches, yellow flowers, and edible red fruits. This is a dense shrub, which is considered invasive because it grows well in almost all terrain and soil types, and grows rapidly. However, this shrub is still used by many for ornamental purposes. The flowers bloom in May and the shrub continues to bear fruits until the onset of winter. During fall, the leaves of the Japanese barberry become reddish-orange.
Wayfaring Tree
Wayfaring Tree
The 'Viburnum lantana' is native to England, Africa, and some parts of Asia. It is a small treelike shrub which grows up to 14 feet. It has a dense foliage and bears bright red fruits which are eaten by birds. The white flowers bloom between May and June, while the fruits remain until autumn. This shrub thrives in well-drained soil, but grows well in dry soil as well. It also requires plenty of sunlight. The foliage turns purplish-red during fall. This shrub has ornamental value because of its hardiness, foliage hues, flowers, and attractive berries.
Magnolia Stellata
Magnolia Stellata
The Magnolia is an extremely popular ornamental deciduous shrub, and is found in both tree and shrub varieties. The Magnolia stellata or the Star magnolia is a small shrub which can grow up to 20 feet. It grows well in hardiness zones between 5-9. This shrub is known for its wonderfully fragrant star-shaped flowers, which can either be whitish-yellow or pinkish-white. The flowers appear during late winter or early spring. The flower buds are prone to frosts and infection. This plant species tolerates alkaline soil well and requires partial shade.
Ash Leaf Spirea
Ash Leaf Spirea
Also known as 'Sorbaria sorbifolia', the Ash Leaf Spirea is a dense shrub. It grows well in USDA hardiness zones ranging from 4-7. This shrub can grow to a height of 4 feet and has a spread of 5 feet. It requires partial shade, sun, ample moisture, and soil that is well-drained. It also yields beautiful clusters of white flowers which bloom during June and July.
Bumald Spirea
Bumald Spirea
This Bumald Spirea shrub grows in USDA hardiness zones ranging from 4-8. It's height and width extend to 5 feet. It requires full sun and moist soil with neutral pH levels to grow properly. The flowers bloom during midsummer and can be of white, pink, and red shades. The foliage remains yellowish-green during spring and summer, and then turns to purplish-bronze during autumn. Some hybrids in this species have purplish-blue foliage as well, such as the Anthony Waterer variety.
Buffaloberry
Buffaloberry
The Shepherdia argentea or the Baffaloberry is native to the North American plains. It grows well in hardiness zones between 3-9. This shrub has dwarf varieties which grow up to 4 feet. It also has larger varieties which can grow to a height of 30 feet. The foliage is grayish-silver and produces edible reddish-maroon fruits. This is a hardy species, is adapted to drought, and is a suitable choice for xerogardening; a type of gardening which utilizes minimal water for irrigation. This plant requires a soil pH that is higher than 6.0 and lesser than 9.0.
Russian Almond
Russian Almond
The Russian Almond or Prunus tenella, is native to Siberia, Europe, and Central Asia. It grows in hardiness zones of 2 and can attain a height of 5-6 feet. This shrub has fiery pink double flowers, which bloom during April and the fruits appear in fall. The fruits have a hairy outer cover and an edible kernel. This ornamental plant is suitable for colder regions because of its ability to withstand lower temperatures. This plant has an impressive spread and when planted in clusters, can provide a dense wall or backdrop for the garden.
Purpleleaf Sandcherry
Purpleleaf Sandcherry
Prunus cistena, grows well in USDA hardiness zones between 2-8. As the name suggests, the leaves of this shrub are purplish-blue during most of the year and then turn greenish-bronze during fall. The shrub can grow to a height of 10 feet as long as it gets full sun or partial shade. This plant has attractive pinkish-white flowers which appear in April, while its purplish fruits appear in July. Even though the Purpleleaf Sandcherry grows better in well-drained soil, it is also drought-resistant. Since insects such as beetles are attracted to this shrub, proper care must be taken to avoid diseases and infections.
Cotoneaster
Cotoneaster
Cotoneaster shrubs have more than 200 deciduous as well as evergreen varieties. It is hardy in zones of 4-8 and is a drought-resistant shrub. This shrub usually attains a height and spread of 4 meters, which is why it is used for hedging. It requires full sun or partial shade and well-drained soil. It adapts to soil with varying pH levels and is suitable for various types of soil, such as clay, sand, loam, and chalk. It also produces red berries which are relished by animals and birds.
Diablo Ninebark
Diablo Ninebark
The Ninebark shrub is native to North America and is a drought-tolerant species. Unlike the dwarf version; the 'Little Devil', the Diablo Ninebark plant can attain a height of 10 feet. It is hardy in zones between 3-7 and is adapted to grow in various types of soil. During spring, the plant bears clustered pinkish-white flowers. The plant was given its peculiar name, because of its distinct purplish-red leaves and peeling reddish-brown bark, which gives it a fleshy appearance. The leaves take on a reddish-bronze hue during fall. This plant requires full sun or partial shade to spread its multiple branches with ease.
Corkscrew Hazel
Hazel Catkins
The Hazel Corkscrew is a treelike shrub that can grow as tall as 10 feet. Unfortunately, its growth often gets slow after reaching the 6 feet mark. It grows well in hardiness zones between 3-9. The name Corkscrew was given to this plant because of its pendulous catkins, that dangle from the branches. The shrub has very dense light-green leaves and produces attractive yellow flowers. It requires full sun and well-drained soil, with adequate supply of moisture. The leaves take on a splendid golden hue during autumn which is maintained throughout November.
List of Deciduous Trees
Paperbark Maple
Acer Griseum
Also known as the Paperbark maple, the Acer griseum is native to China. This tree attains a medium height of 25-30 feet. This tree is known for its peeling dark brown bark which resembles aged paper. The Acer is hardy in zone 4-7.

It requires full sun, part shade, moist and well-drained soil. The foliage is green during spring and throughout summer, and then turns reddish-orange during autumn. The tree is adapted to grow in acidic, alkaline, and neutral soil. It grows well in sandy, loamy, chalky, and clay soil as well. This Acer tree also produces tiny yellow flowers.
Pink Silk Tree
Pink Silk Tree
The Albizia julibrissin is popularly known as the Pink Silk tree. The Albizia has furry upturned pink flowers and very tiny bipinnate leaves. If provided plenty of space to grow, this tree can attain a height of 40 feet and spread as far as 50 feet. The flowers appear and remain throughout summer. This tree is hardy in zones ranging from 6-9, however, it is considered to be an invasive species because of the rapidity with which it grows.

Nonetheless, its fragrant flowers and low-key maintainability makes it a suitable ornamental tree. The Pink Silk tree does not require constant moisture and is relatively drought tolerant. It also tolerates alkaline soil well.
American Hornbeam
American Hornbeam
Carpinus caroliniana or the American hornbeam is a small deciduous tree which attains its maximum height at 20 feet. This tree is native to America and is hardy in zone of 4-8. This tree has a very dense foliage which is dark-green and turns to yellowish-orange during fall. This is an extremely well-adapted tree, as it can grow in dry, wet, and well-drained soil with equal ease. It also acts as a windbreaker and prevents soil erosion.

This is basically an understory tree which grows under much larger trees, and thus does not require full sun and can grow well with partial shade. This tree produces clustered catkins that protect an oval fruit. These catkins blossom in early spring and are approximately an inch long. The wood of this tree is strong and is used for making tools.
Callery Pear
Callery Pear
The Callery pear is also known as the Bradford pear tree. This tree is native to China. It grows well in hardiness zones in the range of 5-8. This tree can grow to a height of 40 feet. The Callery pear requires well-drained, moist soil, and lots of sunlight. However, it grows well in slightly dry terrain as well. Its flowers bloom in spring and densely populate the tree, thereby showering splendid colors upon the landscape. The leaves of this tree become reddish-purple during fall.

This ornamental tree grows well in almost all types of soil and is tolerant to acidic soil. Even though, this tree has gained the Award of Garden Merit by the Royal Horticultural Society, it is considered as an invasive species. The berries of this fruit are spread to other areas by birds, thus causing it to take over the native vegetation.
Himalayan Birch
Himalayan Birch
The Betula utilis var. jacquemontii or the Himalayan birch tree, has a papery bark which was used in ancient times for writing scriptures. This tree is hardy in zones between 4-7. It does well in slightly colder terrain and doesn't require too much moisture, as long as it gets enough sunlight. However, this tree can tolerate wet terrain as well.

This deciduous tree grows to a height of 40 feet, while it spreads up to 20 feet in width. The leaves turn yellowish-golden during fall. The showy bark of this tree, makes it a popular choice among ornamental deciduous trees. The tree also produces brownish-yellow catkins in spring. The Royal Horticultural Society has bestowed the Himalayan birch with the prestigious Award of Garden Merit (AGM).
European Hornbeam
European Hornbeam
Also known as the European Hornbeam, the Carpinus betulus grows well in warmer climates. This tree belongs to the birch family. It is an ornamental tree that attains its maximum height at 40 feet and has a width of 30 feet. It usually takes 50 years for this tree to attain its complete height.

This tree requires full sun or partial shade and well-drained soil. It is tolerant to soil with varying pH levels and can withstand drought and heat. It grows well in clay, loam, and sandy soil, but is unsuitable for chalky soil. The foliage become yellowish-gold during fall. It also produces seeded catkins that appear in April with the onset of spring.
Chinese Dogwood
Chinese Dogwood
Cornus kousa var. chinensis or the Chinese dogwood, is a small ornamental tree. This tree is known for its attractive pinkish-white flowers. This tree attains a height of 22 feet and width of 15 feet. It grows well in acidic and humus soil, and requires full sun to partial shade in order to grow with ease. Chalky soil is unsuitable for this tree.

The leaves of this tree are dark-green during most of the year and turn reddish-purple during fall. With the onset of summer, this tree produces creamy white cluster of flowers along with red berries, which are consumed by birds and squirrels. These flowers gradually turn crimson-pink as the season progresses.
Silver Maple
Silver Maple
The Silver maple or Acer saccharinum, is a rapidly growing deciduous tree. It grows well in hardiness zones ranging between 3-9. This tree requires full sun or partial shade, well-drained or moist soil, and is tolerant towards acidic, alkaline, and neutral soil. It also grows well in various types of soil, such as chalk, loam, sand, and clay.

This tree can attain a height of 50-70 feet and a width of 50 feet or more. The Silver maple has winged fruits, red flowers, and leaves with five distinct lobes. The leaves have a grayish-silver underside and a dark-green surface. The foliage turns bright crimson-yellow during fall.
Japanese Whitespire Birch
Japanese Whitespire Birch
The Betula platyphylla var. japonica 'Whitespire' is a tall and upright tree. It has an attractive bark with grayish-black markings. This tree is hardy in USDA zone between 4-7. The Japanese Birch requires full sun and grows well in both dry and wet terrain.

Even though it grows in poor soil as well, it prefers acidic soil. It attains a height of 35 feet and has a width of 25 feet. It has dark-green foliage, which turns bright yellow during fall. This tree is known to be resistant to the bronze borer pest, that usually causes havoc on other types of birch.
Norway Maple
Norway Maple
Acer platanoides or the Norway maple is an extremely attractive tree. It attains a height of 40 feet and takes 20-50 years to reach its complete height. This tree requires full sun or partial shade, well-drained or moist soil, grows well in soil with varying pH levels, and is tolerant to various types of soil.

The foliage turns a bright crimson-yellow in fall. This tree also produces fragrant yellowish-orange flowers that grow in clusters along with winged fruits or seeds. The Norway maple is prone to infestation by the Asian long-horned beetle, which if not eradicated can stunt the growth of this tree or cause it to die.
Trident Maple
Trident Maple
Acer buergerianum or the Trident maple is native to Taiwan and eastern China. This tree attains a height of 30 feet and has an impressive foliage that attains a spacing of 20 feet. It also has lobed and glossy dark-green leaves and winged seeds. This tree grows well in hardiness zones between 5-9.

It requires full sun or partial shade. Does not tolerate wet terrain and prefers moist but well-drained soil. It thrives in soil with pH levels which are 6.0 and acidic. This tree is often used as a Bonsai tree and thus has tremendous ornamental value.
Tatarian Maple
Tatarian Maple In Blossom
Acer tataricum or the Tatar maple, has three lobed leaves and winged seeds. It bears yellowish-white flowers in spring and attractive red fruits. The leaves are dark-green and turn crimson in autumn. This tree attains a height and spread ranging between 4-8 meters. It may take close to 40 years for this tree to attain its complete height.

This tree requires well-drained or moist soil, and is tolerant to various types of soil such as chalk, clay, loam, and sand. The Tatar maple grows well in acidic, alkaline, and neutral soil. This tree is prone to verticillium wilt, horse chestnut scale, and aphid infestation.
Purpleleaf European Beech
Hill Top With One Tree
Also known as the Fagus sylvatica, the European beech tree has breathtaking purple foliage that it maintains throughout summer and spring. Its foliage turns crimson-purple during fall. This tree requires full sun and is tolerant to various soil pH levels and types of soil. This is a large tree that requires plenty of space to spread. It can grow as tall as 80-160 feet, while its trunk can have a diameter of 5-10 feet. The shoots of the European beech, consist of 2-3 hairy beechnut capsules which are relished by birds and squirrels. This tree does not produce its catkins until it is 30 years old.
Eastern Redbud
Spring Redbud Tree
Cercis canadensis or the Eastern redbud is an extremely popular ornamental tree. This deciduous tree is native to America. It attains a height of 30 feet and has an impressive spread of 30-35 feet. This tree requires plenty of water and full sun to partial shade. The redbud tree is hardy in zones 4-9. It is cherished for its reddish-pink flowers or buds which bloom in clusters and on bare branches, and at the axil of the leaves. While the flowers appear in April, the leaves change from crimson-purple to dark-green and then turn yellow during autumn.
Indian Bean Tree
Indian Bean Tree
Catalpa bignonioides 'Aurea' or the Indian bean tree is native to the United States. This tree can attain a height of 12 meters and a width of 8-10 meters. The foliage of this tree spreads well and has attractive leaves. The foliage is light-green during most of the year and then turn yellow during spring. This tree produces bean-shaped seeds along with bell-shaped flowers that bloom in summer. The flowers are usually orange in color, but there are white and purple varieties as well. This tree must be protected from strong winds and frost.
Common Persimmon
Common Persimmon
The Diospyros virginiana or the common Persimmon is a small fruiting tree. It usually grows to a height of 15 feet, however, when provided adequate space and rich fertile soil, it can grow as tall as 80 feet. This tree thrives in moist and well-drained soil. The white four petaled flowers appear throughout May and June. Also known as the fruit of Zeus, its sweet fruits or berries appear in autumn. This tree grows well in sandy and well-drained soil, and requires plenty of sunlight. The Persimmon fruit is used for making jams, jellies, and wine. Its wood is used for making furniture.
Oriental Beech
Oriental Beech
The Oriental beech tree or Fagus orientalis Lipsky, belongs to the Fagaceae family. It is native to the western Balkans, Asia Minor, northern Iran, and Crimea. This deciduous tree can attain a height of 25-50 meters.

This tree looks similar to the European beech tree, however being a separate species, the bark of the Oriental beech is lighter in color and its leaves are more oval. The beechnuts appear in October and are encapsulated in a hairy pod. The seeds of this tree can be compressed for extracting edible oil. The seeds can also be dried and grounded for making dough.
Black Birch
Black Birch
The black birch has an attractive pinkish-brown peeling bark. This tree is hardy in zones 4-9. It also has distinct catkins that appear in spring along with the leaves. This tree can attain a height of 15-20 meters and has a spread of 4-8 meters. Its foliage is dark-green during most of the year until it turns yellowish-gold in autumn. This tree does well with full sun or partial shade and is intolerant towards alkaline soil. It requires plenty of water to thrive. Its flowers are an unattractive greenish-brown and bloom during April and May. The fruits are elongated and approximately 3 inches long.
Tupelo Tree
Tupelo Tree
Also known as the Nyssa sylvatica, the Black Tupelo is originally adapted to grow on wetlands or in swamps, which is why it is also known as the Swamp Tupelo tree. However, as long as the soil is acidic, this tree can grow in dry terrain as well.

This is a large tree that can grow as tall as 90-100 feet. The bark of this tree is upright, thick, and wide. This tree produces blue fruits which appear in late August and September. The fruits, leaves, and twigs of this tree provide immense nutrition to wildlife. These trees grow well in cypress domes, creeks, and ponds. The blackish-green leaves turn crimson-orange during fall.
Adaptation of Deciduous Plants
As mentioned earlier, deciduous plants adapt themselves according to the seasons. Given below are a few adaptations of deciduous forest vegetation:
  • In the summer, the leaves of the forest plants become broad to capture maximum sunlight, which is converted into food through the process of photosynthesis. Only the required amount of food is used and the rest is stored in the roots so as to help the plant survive the winter.
  • When the days become short and the weather turns cooler, the green pigment called chlorophyll, starts to decompose and thus takes on brighter hues such as yellow, red, and orange.
  • When the winter sets in, plants go into a state of dormancy. They shed their leaves and form a protective shield, called a leaf scar, in the place where the leaves once used to be. If the leaves are not shed, the water in the leaves would freeze and damage the leaves, making the plant vulnerable to fungal or bacterial growth. The plants also produce a concentrated sugar solution which prevents the water in the stem from freezing.
  • When the weather starts to turn warmer, the trees sprout new leaves and restart the process of photosynthesis.
Deciduous Plant Zones
Plants in the deciduous forests grow in five layers or zones which are:
  • The top layer or tree stratum zone, consists of tall deciduous trees that have dense foliage. Though the leaves are thick, they allow sunlight to pass through, encouraging the other layers of plants to grow.
  • Shorter trees and saplings grow in the second zone. This layer consists of plants such as the redbud and flowering dogwood.
  • Shrubs grow in a dense thicket in the third or understory zone. These shrubs tend to grow 2 meters above the ground level.
  • The fourth layer or zone consists of herbs such as wildflowers, fern, and berries which need not be deciduous. These herbs mostly grow before spring, i.e. before the leaves on the trees reappear. The absence of leaves on the canopy trees, provides ample sunlight to the smaller plants.
  • The fifth and final zone consists of lichens and mosses, which grow on the ground and on tree trunks.
It is this constant process of change that makes deciduous forest plants so vibrant and hardy. Before selecting a deciduous plant for the garden, it is important to inquire about its requirements and maintainability, so that it can grow in optimum conditions.
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