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A Visual Guide to Organic Farming Components

Shashank Nakate Nov 5, 2018
Organic farming basically consists of simple and eco-friendly techniques in farming. Use of compost fertilizers, crop rotation, and biological pest control, are some of the features of this type of farming.
Methods using the various traditional agricultural practices like minimum tillage, composting, crop rotation, biological pest control, and exclude application of synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, growth regulators, and genetic modification of crop species, come under organic farming.
Use of modern technology along with organic practices, helps in creating a balanced and sustainable environment for crop growth. Organic farming take a holistic approach in growing crops, rather than exploiting the available natural resources.
The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) carries out the worldwide tasks related to setting standards, and regulation of organic farming activities.



Polyculture is an important aspect of this type of farming. In the traditional form, monoculture is practiced, which includes growing a single crop in a given piece of land. The motive is to reduce the costs incurred in fertilizers, seeds, pesticides, etc.
However, it also creates problems in the long run. Reduction in the soil fertility owing to the extraction of nutrients over a long period, and associated soil erosion results from the practice of monoculture. Moreover, the pests become immune to the chemicals used for their control.
Polyculture is a completely different approach towards farming, as compared to monoculture. In this method, a variety of crops are cultivated on a single piece of land. It helps to attract different soil microbes. Some crops act as repellents to pest, and this results in pest control in an organic manner.


Compost is used to enhance soil fertility. Green manuring also adds nutrients to soil. Growing plants with prolific leaf growth like Alfalfa, and burying them in the soil before cultivating main crop adds organic matter to the soil, needed for plant growth.

Pest Control

It is an important for the growth of a crop. This involves various activities to control pests, without chemical pesticides and insecticides. The growth of beneficial insects is encouraged by growing suitable plants that attract them.
These insects are actually predators, which control the harmful ones. Disease resistant varieties are chosen for cultivation, in order to keep diseases at bay, without having to spend money on costly pesticides. Special types of plants known as 'companion crops' are grown to control, diverge, and discourages the growth of pests.
Biological pesticides such as neem extract, are useful in controlling many different pests. The practice of crop rotation helps in disturbing the reproduction cycles of pests, thereby inhibiting their growth and protecting the crops.

Sustainable Agriculture

The prime objective behind following the methodology of sustainable agriculture is to maintain the ecosystem. Thus, it includes the preservation of nutrients present in the soil, keeping it aerated, and use of fertilizers that decompose in soil.
The result of practicing this type of agriculture is the maintenance of healthy soil, which should be able to nourish plant growth for a longer period.
It is necessary to follow organic farming techniques for sustainable growth of crops. It not only helps in growing the plants at a lesser cost compared to the traditional method, but also maintains the balance of our ecosystem.