The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) carries out the worldwide tasks related to setting standards, and regulation of organic farming activities.
Polyculture is an important aspect of this type of farming. In the traditional form, monoculture is practiced, which includes growing a single crop in a given piece of land. The motive is to reduce the costs incurred in fertilizers, seeds, pesticides, etc.
Polyculture is a completely different approach towards farming, as compared to monoculture. In this method, a variety of crops are cultivated on a single piece of land. It helps to attract different soil microbes. Some crops act as repellents to pest, and this results in pest control in an organic manner.
Compost is used to enhance soil fertility. Green manuring also adds nutrients to soil. Growing plants with prolific leaf growth like Alfalfa, and burying them in the soil before cultivating main crop adds organic matter to the soil, needed for plant growth.
It is an important aspect in the growth of any crop. This involves undertaking various activities to control pests, without using chemical pesticides and insecticides. The growth of beneficial insects is encouraged by growing suitable plants that attract them.
These insects are actually predators, which control the harmful ones. Disease resistant varieties are chosen for cultivation, in order to keep diseases at bay, without having to spend money on costly pesticides. Special types of plants known as 'companion crops' are grown to control, diverge, and discourages the growth of pests.
The prime objective behind following the methodology of sustainable agriculture is to maintain the ecosystem. Thus, it includes the preservation of nutrients present in the soil, keeping it aerated, and use of fertilizers that decompose in soil.
It is necessary to follow organic farming techniques for sustainable growth of crops. It not only helps in growing the plants at a lesser cost compared to the traditional method, but also maintains the balance of our ecosystem.