The muscadine grapevine species is found in the southeastern region of the United States. It is commercially cultivated on a large-scale in warm regions such as Florida, Texas, and Kansas. The muscadine is also known as scuppernong.
The muscadine grapevine being dioecious, the male and female reproductive parts are present on two different plants. Reproduction takes place by means of wind and insect pollination.
The fruit berries of muscadine grapes are in loose and small clusters. A single fruit is 1-1.5 inch in size. The sugar content of the fruits is 16-25%. The flavor of black muscadines is like jaboticaba.
The grapevines of muscadines should be planted facing the south. A well drained soil is needed for grape cultivation. This plant grows well in sandy loam soils. The muscadines also show vigorous growth in alluvial soils. It requires a soil pH between 5.5 and 6.5. If the pH is too high, sulfur can be added to solve the problem.
If the vines are not pruned, a strangled woody mass of the branches is formed. Pruning also helps in allowing the growth of new shoots. Pruning should be done every year to maintain the framework of the grapevine which consists of a trunk, spurs, and arms.
The layering technique of propagation is used in case of muscadine grapevines. Generally the propagation is done in the middle of summer. In this technique, the canes of the grapevines from the previous season are lowered to the ground surface and covered with soil.
New roots develop from the point at which the cane touches the ground. Bench grafting is also used in the propagation of muscadines. However, they are not compatible with the European grapevine species.
Since the berries drop at different times of the year, a tarpaulin is spread beneath the vine to collect the harvest. Fruits are also picked by hands. The picking or collection of fruits is done between mid September and the end of October. A single vine produces about 20 pounds of fruits. Light refrigeration is recommended to store the fruits.