Fruit of this species is a true berry, called grapes. Cultivated varieties bear green, red, or purple grapes. In their wild version, the berries are small and dark purple. Grapevine grows best in humid climate.
Its life cycle can be categorized under certain stages, depending upon their growth pattern. In fact, caring for the grapevine depends on the season and growth of the plants. Understanding their annual life cycle is necessary so as to take care of the plants for maximum harvest. It begins after the dormant stage, during early spring.
Depending on the environmental conditions, new leaves develop within 3-4 weeks after the bud break in March. At this time, maximum food storage is done through photosynthesis.
Examine the onset of powdery mildew disease on the leaves and stems. If necessary, apply anti-fungal sprays to control it. In case if there is an extra shoot growth, remove by suckering without affecting the vine. This allows storage of maximum energy for the formation of flower clusters.
Development of flower clusters usually occurs within 9-10 weeks after the bud break, in late May or early June. Flowering time may vary based on the vitis variety and climatic conditions of the region.
In this stage, the cells undergo division leading to enlargement of the berries. Thinning of the leaves and shoots should be done in order to give space to the berries. While doing so, insure that the fruits are not exposed directly to sun, as it may cause sun scald.
Berry softening is due to the accumulation of sugars. The berry color depends on the variety of the grapevine. For better coloration of the berries, many growers prefer to trim the canopy. Veraison usually occurs in late July, about 45 days after fruit set.