Guava trees are members of the myrtle family of tropical trees and shrubs. Guava is also called Psidium in Latin. The myrtle family consists of 100 species of tropical plants and trees. Tropical climate suits guava trees and they are native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. It grows in abundance in some parts of southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and some parts of Africa.
This tree normally reaches up to a height of four meters and has large leaves with blazing veins. It bears white color flowers that possess many stamens which mature into a pear shaped, yellow color fruit that has numerous seeds.
How to Grow Guava Tree
During this fruit bearing stage, if the temperature falls below 15 °C, the quality of the fruit suffers. The tree is well adapted to both summer and winter temperatures. They can also survive in droughts very well and grow best in areas which receive almost 1000 to 1500 mm of rainfall. If the rain is sparse, trees should be watered during the dry period, especially if there are fruits.
Basically all types of soil suit the growth of a guava tree. These trees are normally found near streams, brooks, and rivers. They survive in these areas despite the excessive water logging and poor soil conditions. If you want a well-grown guava tree, you should plant it in well-drained soils.
Planting the Guava Tree
The recommended planting distance is 2 m between each tree in a row. If you want your guava tree to always remain healthy and productive, make sure the plants are not planted too close to each other. If you are planting these trees on a large-scale, make sure that the space between them must be enough to pass tractors, spraying machines, and laborers.
Pruning Guava Trees
- You can start pruning young guava plants when they are only 3 to 4 months old. Always prune grown guava trees after summer when they have borne fruits.
- Take out all the ground root suckers and dead wood which gets accumulated on the tree. Skirt infected branches will stop the fruiting of this tree and can also cause harm to the tree.
- Always prune a guava tree in a judicious manner. Make a cut above the lateral branch, take care that you don't chop off branches which are bearing new flowers.
- Avoid pruning any dead parts of the tree which may have died due to weather conditions. You can remove the dead branches at any time.
- Pruning with dirty or dull tools may cause a long term damage to the tree. Always make sure that your cutting tools are clean and sanitized before you prune any tree or plant.
Guava Tree Care
- Guavas are climatic fruits. They can be picked green and will still ripen in storage and shipping. Always plant the tree in a sunny location away from other trees. Make sure the soil is free from flooding and it drains well after rainfall.
- Don't allow any tree or grass to grow around the tree's location as it will interfere with the guava tree's growing process.
- Enrich the tree four to six times a year using a good quality fertilizer. You can also use nutritional sprays which contain zinc, manganese, boron, and iron.
- Water the guava tree every alternate day in the first week. Never water the tree during the rainy seasons.
- Always keep an open eye for the Caribbean fruit fly, the guava moth, the red banded thrip, and the guava white fly.
- Covering the fruit with a paper bag has also proved useful in preventing insect infestation. If you want professional help, get in touch with the local Agricultural Organization.