There are a number of varieties of grapes. The method and time taken for growing the plant will vary according to the type of grapevine you choose. Given below is a generalized way to grow grapes at home.
First, you have to take into account the kind of climate that is required for growing the grapes. They can't be grown in extreme climatic conditions and require just the right climate. Frost can cause a lot of problems to the grapes; hence, the grapevines should not be planted in winter. Planting a grapevine should ideally be done during a period when the climate is constantly warm as the fruits require proper sunlight for ripening. Planting them in early spring is recommended.
The soil provides most of the nutrients to the plants. It should be chosen in such a way that it can retain maximum amount of water. One must remember an important fact about grapevines―their roots tend to grow about three to six feet from the base of the plant. Therefore, any other plantation that you intend to grow should have at least a gap of eight feet from the grapevines. This should be kept in mind while growing them from seeds or from a rootstock.
Grapevines require a lot of moisture. If they seem too dry, soak the rootstock in water if required; do not soak them for more than a day to avoid the danger of rotting. Also, do not leave them out in the open for more than a day―the grapevine may dry.
When the grapevines are young, proper watering is essential. Try to water the plants at least twice a day. This will allow the roots to settle. However, while watering the plant when it is old enough, allow the extra water to drain. Failing to do so will make the plant susceptible to diseases.
Observe the leaves of the plant to ensure that the grapevine is getting adequate nutrients. The leaves should be dark green in color. If the color starts fading, add fertilizers to the plants. There are many chemical-based fertilizers available in the market, but you can use compost as well. Add about 5-6 inches of compost to the soil in order to provide the required nutrients to the plant.
Building a trellis is very important when your grapevine starts getting older. It is something like a latticework which is used as a support for climbing plants. The height of the trellis is important, as the grapevines tend to grow to different heights in different seasons. In winter, shorter trellis can do, while in summer you need to have them in a larger size. Making the plant follow the trellis is necessary and requires patience.
Pruning the vines in the right way is important. It is recommended to prune them during spring. If pruned early, especially in winter, the buds might get damaged due to frost. The additional shoots should also be pruned as well.
In olden times, the grapes' richness in color determined their ripeness. Nowadays, readymade kits are available in the market that help you determine the ripeness of the fruits.
Although all these tasks require constant efforts and patience, the entire experience will be worthwhile once the vines bear fruit.