The Arctic tundra region, which lies in the northern hemisphere, is known for its extreme cold climate. An important feature of this region is that the soil is permanently frozen. This feature of the soil becoming frozen is known as permafrost. The word 'tundra' comes from the Finnish tunturi; the meaning of this word is a plain region devoid of trees.
Plants of Arctic Tundra
The Arctic tundra plants are known for the adaptations they have undergone in order to survive hostile climate of this region. This is why plants as well animals in the Arctic tundra biome endure its testing conditions.
- This plant is characterized by flower stalks that are large and stout.
- Its flowers are blue in color and exhibit a hairy appearance while in buds.
- It belongs to the Fabaceae family, and its flowering season continues from June till late July.
- Rhizome is the type of roots that the Arctic Lupine possesses.
- Basal leaves of this plant are oval in shape.
- The blue-colored flowers of this plant in some cases have shades of white and pink.
- The Arctic poppy is a plant known for its delicate flowers and heliotrophic nature.
- This hardy plant has yellow petals and is covered in black hair.
- The maximum height, which can be attained by the Arctic poppy is around 25 cm. It mostly grows in rocky areas.
- It can also be found in dry river beds and meadows.
- The plant is poisonous, however, the level of toxicity is low. Arctic poppies are rare species of plants found in this Arctic tundra climate.
- It is a group of flowering plants, which belong to the following genera: Potentilla and Dasiphora.
- This plant has compound leaves with 5 leaflets.
- However, few species have leaves with leaflets ranging from 3-7 in number.
- Stems of the cinquefoil can be either erect or creeping.
- It is one of the hardy plants of the Arctic tundra region, which survives the extreme cold of weather.
- The Caribou feeds on these lichens, and it is not just used for survival.
- In fact, the lichen forms 90% of the food intake by Caribou even in warmer seasons.
- The Orangey-red lichen (Jewel Lichen) and Xanthoria are the common forms of lichens that are found in this part of the world.
- Reindeer Moss is another form of lichen, which is green-grey in color.
|Arctic Tundra Plants|
- The harsh, cold climate is the biggest deterrent for life to flourish in Arctic tundra region.
- An important adaptation observed to overcome cold weather is the growth that take place close to the ground surface.
- Plants of the Arctic tundra region need to protect themselves from wind. The fuzzy growth, which takes place on leaves, stems, and buds serves the purpose of protection from wind.
- This growth can also be observed on seed surfaces.
- The growing season for plants in this region is shorter than that is in other parts of the world.
- The long hours of sunlight are, therefore, best used for the purpose of flowering.
- The Arctic tundra animals and plants have to adapt to the harsh climatic conditions. The overall tundra climate allows only the fittest to survive.